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دانلود رایگان مقاله ترجمه شده با عنوان ارتباطات درون سازمانی در فرمت ورد و شامل ترجمه متن زیر می باشد:

OrganizationImprovement: Cooperative Communication

by :Robert Bacal

The workplace is acomplicated place. Imagine a spider web of people, managers, supervisors andstaff members who need to work together, interacting in various ways to fulfilthe organization's mandate. Disagreements and conflict are bound to occur;between staff members, between staff and management, and between clients andmembers of your organization.

As a result of workingwith thousands of government employees to help them acquire and use defusinghostility skills, we have concluded that a good amount of bad feelings,organizational problems, destructive conflict and inefficiency result from alack of skill in the WAY that people communicate with each other. This isn'tthat surprising if we consider that our society tends to glorify theconfrontational, John Wayne type heroes. And, that as children learn language,they tend to learn confrontational, negative language before they learn how toget along with others.

Cooperative communication,or the skills needed to get along in the workplace, or, for that matter,anywhere else, are in relatively short supply, because we simply don't teachthem to children or adults. So we get unnecessary conflict and friction. We getarguments that are more oriented towards winning than solving problems, and weget the so-called personality conflict, a convenient phrase that allowseveryone to avoid responsibility for interpersonal problems. We get teams thatdon't work well because they lack the skills. We get meetings where themajority of time is wasted because people don't interact effectively. We getclashes with clients and cus tomers that occur as a result of both partiesmoving into confrontational ways of interacting.

We've moved forward indefining the elements of cooperative communication so that they can be taughtto people. But what is cooperative communication?

What Is CooperativeCommunication

Some ways of communicatingincrease friction and anger. Other ways of communication tend to cause peopleto work WITH us, and not against us. While it is clear that blatantaccusations, name-calling and personal attacks are confrontational (theopposite of cooperative), there are many more subtle ways to ruin acommunication. To illustrate some of the techniques of cooperativecommunication, let's take a look at the following sentences:

"You neverfinish the work on time."

"It seemslike you are having some difficulty with the timelines. What can I do tohelp?"

Which of these phrases doyou think is more likely to elicit a productive dialogue? Clearly the first atleast "sounds" antagonistic", while the second doesn't. Anotherexample: "If you had bothered to read the report, you would know...."

It might bethat the report wasn't clear on those points. Would you like me toexplain?

What are the cooperativerules here? In our first set of examples, the initial statement uses anabsolute word "never", and as a result tends to cause the otherperson to argue. In addition the phrase sounds blaming. The replacement phraselacks those confrontational characteristics, uses a qualifier"seems", and offers to work together. In the second phrase set, thekey word is "bothered", which suggests that the person is lazy, or uncaring,and that is what will be heard. It also is a blaming statement. In thereplacement phrase, we introduce another qualifier "might", followedby an offer to solve the problem.

In both phrase sets, thefirst phrases are likely to create argument and personalized conflict while thereplacement phrases are more likely to result in real problem solving.

There are a number ofother aspects of cooperative communication, far too many to outline in a singlearticle. However, cooperative communication involves the use of techniques thatare designed to prevent destructive conflict, enhance workplace morale, andsave considerable time and energy.

How Do People LearnCooperative Communication?

Our estimates are thatbetween 5-10% of people consistently communicate in cooperative ways, althoughthat estimate is certainly not scientific. A minority of people acquire theseskills through experience, but unfortunately, experience is a slow, unreliableteacher. As a result we have decided to offer our Building Bridges series of seminars.At present there are two separate components to the process. The first seminar"Communicating Cooperatively In The Workplace", provides the basiccomponents of cooperative communication, and highlights the advantages of usingthose components. The second seminar is entitled "Thorny WorkplaceCommunication Problems" is a case-study based approach that allowsparticipants to work through real communication situations, to determine howthey can apply cooperative communication to them.

The first seminar can bedone stand-alone, while the second requires the first as a pre-requisite. Sincewe believe that seminars should be custom-designed, we will not be including anoutline of content, since content will vary considerably from workplace toworkplace. If your workplace problems centre around meetings, then the contentwould differ from a workplace that had general team-based issues. Or, if yourmajor concern is written communication, the content would be different than ifyou are primarily concerned with verbal communication. What we can tell you nowis that these seminars will be much different than the standard communicationcourses on the market, and avoid many of the tired, ineffective old saws thatare often included in basic communication seminars.

If you would like moreinformation about cooperative communication elements you can order our helpcard on the subject (Communicating Cooperatively In The Workplace) by using theorder form included in this newsletter. Whether you are a manager or staff member,you will find that learning and using cooperative communication techniques canreduce the amount of destructive conflict around you, save valuable time,increase team effectiveness, and reduce supervisory/ management time dealingwith conflict that is a result of confrontational communication approaches.



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